Today's stone Kolomna Kremlin occupies an area of 24 hectares and is a magnificent example of fortification architecture of the 16th century. Before that, the Kremlin was made of wood, but looked no less monumental: it is said that the stone walls were built on the exact place of their wooden predecessors.
Kolomna Kremlin suffered most at the hands of the Tatars: almost all of the Golden Horde campaigns ended with an attack on Kolomna and the destruction of the Kolomna Kremlin. After the walls were rebuilt, no-one managed to take the fortress by force again.
The stone Kremlin in Kolomna was erected under Vasily III, in 1525-1531. There is a legend that the construction of the Kolomna Kremlin was overseen by Italian architects, including Aleviz Fryazin, who not only participated in the construction of the Moscow Kremlin but also used it as a model for the fortress in Kolomna. This version is also supported by data about the time frame for construction of the Kolomna Kremlin: it took six years to build, while the construction of the Moscow Kremlin went on for more than a decade: it seems that the builders and architects had gained experience and were able to cope with similar tasks much faster. In addition, the appearance of the Kolomna Kremlin (as well as the Moscow Kremlin) is reminiscent of the architectural features of the Northern Italian strongholds in Milan, Verona, and Turin.
Once the stone Kolomna Kremlin had 16 towers, but only seven have survived to this day: Pyatnitskaya, Pogorelaya (Alekseevskaya), Spasskaya, Simeonovskaya, Yamskaya (Troitskaya), Granovitaya and Kolomenskaya (Marinkina). Up until the 19th century, the walls of the fortress were gradually destroyed by the «endeavors» of the local population: people simply took bricks for their own use. It was only in the early nineteenth century that a special law was issued to put an end to this. However, it was too late, as only two sections of the wall remained by that time.
There are many legends about the towers of the Kolomna Kremlin, the most well-known of them related to the Marinkina Tower. Apparently, it received its name fr om Marina Mniszech, its famous prisoner, who was held there in 1611. One legend says that Mniszech did not die in prison but turned into a crow and left the tower through a window. Another legend has it that Mniszech buried a treasure under the Kremlin's Pyatnitsky Gate.
The most picturesque place in the Kolomna Kremlin is the Cathedral Square. It acquired its modern appearance in the late 18th century. In 2007, a monument to Cyril and Methodius was erected here.
Inside the Kremlin, you can see Brusensky Assumption Nunnery and Holy Trinity New Golutvin Convent, the Kolomna Museum, and the Organic Culture Museum, which exhibits the works of contemporary artists fr om the 20th and 21st centuries. The unusual Housing Services and Utilities Museum, which tells the history of the origin and development of urban services, is housed in the former water tower building. The exhibition area is in a cylinder-shaped space with a miniature copy of the Shukhov Tower in Moscow in the middle. Not far from the Pyatnitsky Gate stands the Museum of Russian Photography.
The the old houses and estate villas add a special charm to the Kolomna Kremlin. They include Lozovsky's house, the Petrovs» manor estate, and the houses of Mozgov and Lukovnikov. Inside the Kolomna Kremlin you will also see Kuprin's house, wh ere the writer's sister lived. He often visited her and stayed here, and it is wh ere he wrote a number of his works. Kuprin’s house has survived almost unchanged to the present day.
You will need a whole day to visit all the churches and museums of the Kolomna Kremlin, admiring the monasteries and old buildings on its territory. This is definitely a trip to remember, because the Kolomna Kremlin reflects virtually the entire history of the country.
|Phone number:||+7 (496) 612-03-37, +7 (496) 612-16-62, +7 (901) 526-94-49|
|Address:||5 Lazhechnikova Street, Kolomna, Moscow Oblast|