Orenburg Tarpania is the site of the first project to reintroduce populations of the Mongolian wild horse in Russia. A former military training area on the Orlovsky steppe was chosen as the site for launching the project.
A Breeding Center for Steppe Animals was established in the Orenburgsky Nature Reserve with the participation of the Orenburg branch of the Russian Geographical Society and the Steppe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Mongolian wild horses, two kiangs, and three Bactrian camels have become its first inhabitants. After a period of adaptation, the animals were released to the new grasslands. In 2016, a pair of Mongolian wild horses gave birth to the first colt. In addition, four yaks were brought to the Center in May 2016. The animals in Orenburg Tarpan live and breed in nature.
Currently the area of Orenburg Tarpan is 16.5 hectares. Commercial activity has been forbidden here for 20 years already. For starters, the breeders have resolved to stop at two herds of 10-15 animals each.