Kaluga is a small town located on the banks of the Oka River, 180 kilometers south-west of Moscow. The first documented mentions of the city date back to 1371. Initially, the city was a fortress that defended Moscow against enemy raids from the south and west, but gradually, due to the expansion of state borders, this status has lost relevance.
Kaluga was one of the first in Russia to be built up not spontaneously, but according to the «regular plan» approved by Empress Catherine the Great after visiting the city in 1775.
During the Patriotic War of 1812, Kaluga became the main rear base for Russian troops.
July 5, 1944 the Kaluga region was formed, and Kaluga became its administrative center.
Kaluga, being a typical provincial city of the Central Russian band, often became and becomes a film set for movies and TV series. For example, movies such as Take-Off, Other People's Letters, Moscow-Cassiopeia/Teens in the Universe, Thirty Three, White Bim Black Ear, Carnival, the Voroshilov Sharpshooter, the Border, Payday, Korolev.
The most interesting functioning «landmark» of the city is the Stone Bridge (viaduct).
The world's first and largest museum of space, the K.E. Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, is located In the city.
The City Park of Culture and Leisure is the heart of the city's historical past.