It is a scientific, cultural, industrial, transportation, trade and business center of Siberia, the administrative center of the Novosibirsk region and the Siberian Federal District, one of the largest transport hubs.
Today, Novosibirsk ranks third in Russia in terms of population and the thirtieth in terms of area. It is a scientific, cultural, industrial, transportation, trade and business center of Siberia, the administrative center of the Novosibirsk region and the Siberian Federal District, one of the largest transport hubs. The huge railway station of the city, one of the largest in the country, has become a symbol of Novosibirsk, along with the letters on its roof which say: «Novosibirsk the Main». But probably the most famous feature of the city is Academgorodok («the Academic City»), a place with relatively small area where more than twenty scientific and educational institutions are located. Cafe-club «Under the Integral» of Academgorodok has become one of the symbols of the «Khrushchev thaw»: for example, it is here that Alexander Galich had his only public concert in the USSR.
Novosibirsk is situated on the Priobskoe plateau near the reservoir, which is officially called Novosibirsk reservoir but is more known as the Ob Sea. The right-bank part of Novosibirsk features many ravines, low ridges, and gulleys: the lanscape starts its transition to the mountain relief of the Salair ridge.
The first Russian settlement in the territory of modern Novosibirsk dates back to the last decade of the 17th century, i. e., the beginning of Peter the Great's rule. They named the village Krivoshchekovskaya («Crooked Cheek»)? after a serviceman from Tomsk, Fyodor Krenitsyn, dubbed Crooked Cheek for the saber scar on his face.
At least until 1712, Krivoshchekovskaya acted as a trade center between the Russians and the Teleuts, who owned the lands on the other side of the Ob River. The settlement in the territory of modern Novosibirsk developed at various rate in different areas: the Russian colonialists preferred to settle on the left bank: by the end of the 18th century, this territory was completely populated, as, although the Teleuts had left the place, a fortress of one of the tribes subordinated to them still remained. Russian people called them the Chuts and, probably, did not really like them, as they only settled on the left shore.
On April 28, 1982 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR issued a decree on awarding Novosibirsk with the Order of Lenin for the great merits of the working people of the city in the revolutionary movement, their contribution to the struggle against the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War and the success achieved in the economic and cultural development.
In February 1990, Novosibirsk was given the status of a historical city as a center of science and culture in Siberia, and in 2000, by the decree of President Vladimir Putin, the Siberian Federal District was formed, with Novosibirsk as its center.