Makhachkala is the capital of Dagestan and one of the largest cities in the North Caucasus, the only ice-free in winter, a Russian port on the Caspian sea. This hot southern city is situated between the foothills of the Caucasus and the Caspian sea, at the foot of mount Tarki-Tau. In the past this narrow plains on the West coast called "the corridor of Dagestan" for the possession of which fought many peoples.
The settlement was founded in 1844 as a Russian military fortification Petrovskoye. In 1857, the settlement was granted town status and the name of the port city of Petrovsk. The name derives from a legend. It is believed that during the Persian campaign in 1722 in this place was the camp of the troops of Peter the great.
In Soviet times, the city became the capital of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed in Makhachkala, in honor of the revolutionary Makhach Mahadeva.
Today Makhachkala - the fastest growing major cities of Russia. The population of over 700 thousand people. Representatives of more than 60 nationalities and all religions, as well as countless small denominations. Besides mosques in the city there is an Orthodox Church, the Church of seventh-day Adventists, the construction of the synagogue. Among the most promising projects is the development of the city as a tourist center.
Planned construction of a satellite city of Makhachkala "Cote d'azur", which should become a major tourist attraction. There are 5 state universities, 8 museums, 7 theatres, 8 libraries, 62 schools. Here also is located the Dagestan scientific center of RAS and 20 research institutes. There are two railway stations, airport Uytash, Sea trade port.