Уникальный маршрут по шести российским памятникам Всемирного наследия, какого нет среди предложений отечественных туроператоров.
Семьдесят первая годовщина учреждения ЮНЕСКО — отличный повод для большого путешествия по памятникам Всемирного наследия. Поездка объединяет четыре города — Москву, Сергиев Посад, Ярославль, Санкт-Петербург — и небольшое село Ферапонтово, где на стенах собора Рождества Богородицы в Ферапонтовом монастыре сохранились чудесные фрески XV века.
Символично будет начать путешествие по памятникам ЮНЕСКО России от Нулевого километра. И в данном случае это не просто красивый жест. Знак Нулевого километра расположен на Красной Площади. Архитектурный ансамбль Кремля, включая непревзойденный Покровский Собор (в народе — Собор Василия Блаженного), и сама Красная Площадь — памятники Всемирного наследия с 1990 года. Красная Площадь — одно из тех мест, где любитель истории и культуры может провести целый отпуск, и ежедневно открывать всё новые страницы её истории, созерцать бескрайние экспозиции музейных предметов, удивляться винегрету эпох, каждая из которых представлена на этой территории чем-нибудь характерным: особым архитектурным стилем, роскошью торговых рядов, или забальзамированным вождем. А можно ограничиться несколькими поспешными кадрами и скорее двинуться на Юго-Запад Москвы — к следующему пункту маршрута.
One of the most famous monasteries in Moscow was supposedly founded around 1524. In pre-revolutionary Russia its status among other monasteries was quite high, and many women from royal and boyar families took their vows here, which meant that they sacrificed both their land and wealth to the monastery.
The Church of the Ascension (1532), the first tent-roof stone church inRussia, was built by an Italian architect, supposedly Pietro Annibale (Little Petrok), at the order of Moscow Grand Prince Vasily III. In 1994 it was included into UNESCO World Heritage List.
Now it is a functional Orthodox church that enjoys the high status of a patriarchal metochion. Worship is served on large holidays; for the rest of the year the church is open for the visitors as a museum
The history of Russia's largest Orthodox monastery is associated with the name of Saint Sergius of Radonezh. The monastery is said to have been founded in 1337, but some historians place it at a later date. According to legend, in his early years Sergius, who bore the lay name of Bartholomew, and his brother decided to become monks. After finding a solitary place in the forest, they built a monastic cell and a small church in the name of the Holy Trinity. Soon after, his brother went to the Moscow Epiphany Monastery and Sergius stayed behind alone.
Humility, patience, and a strong work ethic were among the distinguishing merits of Sergius of Radonezh. Striving to achieve the ideal of holiness, the hermit bravely overcame temptations and did not spend a single hour in sloth. A rumor about an ascetic living in Radonezh forest spread in towns and villages. Monks began to come to Sergius. This is how the monastery gradually appeared around his settlement. At the emphatic request of his disciples, Sergius became a priest and the abbot of the monastery he founded. People came fr om afar to have a word with the Reverend, and Trinity Monastery became a spiritual center of the Moscow lands.
Reverend Sergius passed away on September 25, 1392. Before his death he gave in commandment to the brethren to keep the purity of the Orthodox religion, to preserve the purity of soul and body, to practice unfeigned love, and to strive for humbleness and hospitality. In 1422, during the construction of the Trinity Church inside the monastery, holy relics of the Reverend Sergius were discovered and became the main sacred items in the church.
In 1422, the first stone building of the monastery, Trinity Cathedral, was laid on the location of the old wooden church. Prominent icon painters took part in decorating the temple. Andrei Rublev painted the famous Trinity for the cathedral's iconostasis. The Trinity Cathedral was venerated by Moscow's dukes. Agreements were verified through kissing the cross, and heirs to the throne were baptized here.
The White Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles decorating the Cathedral Square was built in 1476-1477 years by Pskov craftsmen. The construction of the Assumption Cathedral started in 1559, and its history is linked with the name of Ivan the Terrible.
In the 1540s, the construction of white stone walls around the monastery began. In the 1550s a belt in the form of an irregular quadrangle with the length of about 1.5 kilometers was built. At the same time, hammer ponds were built in ravines adjacent to the monastery, and on the southern side a large pond was dug. The monastery had become a powerful fortress. In the middle of the 17th century, fortifications were strengthened and the monastery took its present day shape.
At the end of the 17th century, a chapel was built over a spring discovered in 1644 during repairs of a porch in the Assumption Cathedral. According to legend, its healing water cured a blind monk, and the afflicted started to come to the miraculous spring fr om all over Russia.
In 1699, a gate church was built at the expense of wealthy patrons, the Stroganovs. This is the temple wh ere now sacrament of penance is performed for many devotees and wh ere confession is held for pilgrims who come each morning to the temple.
The monastery attained the title of Lavra in the 1740s. Empress Elizabeth often visited, accompanied by fireworks and luxurious meals. A recreational palace surrounded by greenhouses was built beyond the walls of the monastery. A court architect designed a new monastery bell tower, the same one for which the Tsar Bell was cast. The five-tier bell tower, the highest one in Russia, occupies a central position in the architectural ensemble of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.
Many buildings of the Lavra were supposed to have been rebuilt. A massive fire, which in 1746 destroyed all the wooden buildings of the monastery, encouraged the renovation works. After comprehensive reconstruction, the appearance of the monastery buildings began to resemble the interior of palaces. The walls were painted in bright colors, decorated with gilded stucco works, and the interiors were lavishly decorated. Inside the monastery, white stone paths appeared, as well as a walkway decorated with wrought iron grills. An obelisk with medallions narrating the history of the monastery was built on the main square.
On the Lavra website, you can choose one of the excursions or pilgrimage tours, including: a highlight tour of the three main cathedrals; «A Day in the Lavra» program; a pilgrimage tour to Gethsemane-Chernigov small monastery; a visit to the springs; and an excursion for students called «Icons and Temples of the Lavra.»
Исторический центр Ярославля признан памятником ЮНЕСКО в 2005 году, а ещё через пять лет город отметил свое 1000-летие. Расположенный при впадении Которосли в Волгу, Ярославль поражает гостей со всех сторон: туристы прибывают сюда и по воде, и по суше. При включении исторического центра со старинными храмами, купеческими домами и торговыми лавками в список Всемирного наследия, учитывалась его прекрасная сохранность: будто и не было вероломного XX века в истории города. Он щедро начинён музеями, древними храмами, галереями, сувенирными магазинами и ресторанчиками с видом из окна на типичный городок позапрошлого столетия, где можно отведать настоящей русской ухи, щей и фирменных настоек.
The monuments in the St. Therapontus Monastery, painted by Dionisius, are a rare example of a perfectly preserved monastery of the Russian North from the 15th-17th centuries. The Belozersk St. Therapontus Monastery of the Nativity of the Virgin was founded at the turn of the 14th-15th centuries,during the period of expansion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. For about 400 years, the monastery was one of the centers for cultural and religious education of the Belozerye region. At one point the elders of the monastery had a serious influence on Moscow politics. Vasiliy II, Elena Glinskaya, and Ivan IV came here on pilgrimages.
The first stone church of the Belozerye was the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin in the St. Therapontus Monastery, erected in 1490 by craftsmen from Rostov. In 1502, the famous iconographer Dionisius, known for his icons and fresco paintings in Moscow and the Moscow Duchy, was invited with his crew to decorate the monastery. As denotes the inscription on the surface of the arch at the Cathedral North entrance, the work took them 34 days. It must be noted that this miraculously preserved work of Dionisius remained unknown until 1898.
The museum of Dionisius fresco paintings was established in the early 20th century. All through the 1930-1960s, the monuments were protected by a single guard. However, during the Second World War, when the Novgorod churches of the 12th-15th centuries were destroyed, the paintings of Dionisius became among the few remaining fresco painting ensembles from Ancient Russia. The organization of the modern museum began in 1975. Eventually, it became a major center of scientific research and education. At the end of the year 2000, the complex of the St. Therapontus Monastery with its fresco paintings by Dionisius was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Памятниками ЮНЕСКО различные объекты становятся по двум основным причинам: они либо чрезвычайно типичны для определённой местности и культуры, либо, напротив, они настолько нетипичны в окружающем контексте, что одно лишь их существование удивляет. Санкт-Петербург — из второго разряда. Город, выросший, казалось, по одной лишь прихоти Петра I среди болот в подражание Европе, оказался каким-то особенно русским её изводом. Его центр и множество рукотворных объектов в отдалении стали единым и одним из самых масштабных памятников ЮНЕСКО в 1990 году, одновременно с Московским Кремлем.